House in Dangast (The White House)

Erich Heckel

Casa en Dangast (La casa blanca)

Heckel, Erich

Döbeln, 1883 - Radolfzell, 1970

House in Dangast (The White House), 1908

© Erich Heckel, VEGAP, Madrid, 2015

Signed lower right: 'Heckel 08''.
Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection on loan to the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid

Oil on canvas

71 x 81 cm

CTB.1961.13

Artwork history

  • Artist Collection

  • Roman Norbert Ketterer Collection

  • Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Lugano, 1961

  • Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection

1914

Erich Heckel, Berlín, Kunstsalon Fritz Gurlitt, n. 17

1957

Erich Heckel, Duisburgo, Städtisches Kunstmuseum, n. 8

1957

Erich Heckel. Werke der Brückezeit 1907-1917, Stuttgart, Württembergischer Kunstverein, n. 6

1957

Maler der "Brücke" in Dangast von 1907 bis 1912. Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Erich Heckel, Max Pechstein, Emma Ritter, Oldenburg, Kunstverein, n. 30, p. 88. La obra aparece como: Weisses Haus. Altes Posthaus Dangast

1958

Brücke, 1905-1913. Eine Künstlergemeinschaft des Expressionismus, Essen, Museum Folkwang, n. 18

1959

Bilder der ''Brücke'', Ulm, Ulmer Museum

1959

Triumph der Farbe. Die europäischen Fauves, Schaffhausen, Museum zu Allerheiligen; Berlín, Schloss Charlottenburg, n. 91. La obra aparece como: Weisses Haus in Dangast

1960 - 1961

Meisterwerke des Deutschen Expressionismus, Bremen, Kunsthalle Bremen; Hannover, Kunstverein; La Haya, Gemeentemuseum; Colonia, Wallraf-Richartz Museum; Zúrich, Kunsthaus Zürich, n. 97

1963 - 1964

Erich Heckel. Zur Vollendung des achten Lebensjahrzehntes, Essen, Museum Folkwang; Hamburgo, Hamburger Kunstverein, n. 7

1964

L'Espressionismo. Pittura, scultura, architettura, Florencia, Palazzo Strozzi, n. 118

1964

Painters of the Brücke, Londres, Tate Gallery, n. 5

1966

Le Fauvisme français et les débuts de l´Expressionnisme allemand / Der französische Fauvismus und der deutsche Frühexpressionismus, París, Musée national d´art moderne; Múnich, Haus der Kunst, n. 148

1971

Erich Heckel Exhibition, Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada; Winnipeg, Winnipeg Art Gallery, n. 5.

1972

Die Künstler der ''Brücke'', Schaffhausen, Museum zu Allerheiligen; Bonn, Rheinisches Landesmuseum, n. 19

1975

Die Künstler der ''Brücke'', Schaffhausen, Museum zu Allerheiligen; Bonn, Rheinisches Landesmuseum, n. 19

1975

Moderne Kunst aus der Sammlung Thyssen-Bornemisza, Bremen, Kunsthalle Bremen, n. 27, s.p., lám.

1977 - 1978

La Collection Thyssen-Bornemisza. Tableaux modernes, Bruselas, Musée d'Ixelles, n. 35, s.p., lám.

1978

La collection Thyssen-Bornemisza. Tableaux modernes, París, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, n. 35, s.p., lám.

1980 - 1981

Expressionism. A German Intuition. 1905-1920, Nueva York (NY), Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum; San Francisco (CA), Museum of Modern Art, n. 90

1982 - 1984

20th Century Masters: The Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Washington (DC), National Gallery of Art; Hartford (CT), Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art; Toledo (OH), Toledo Museum of Art; Seattle (WA), Seattle Art Museum; San Francisco (CA), San Francisco Museum of Art; Nueva York (NY), The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Phoenix (AZ), Phoenix Art Museum, n. 6, p. 15, lám.

1984

Modern Masters from the Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Tokio, National Museum of Modern Art; Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefectural Museum of Art, n. 22, p. 138, lám. p. 38

1984

Modern Masters from the Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Londres, Royal Academy of Arts, n. 43

1985

Maestri dell'arte moderna nella Collezione Thyssen-Bornemisza, Florencia, Palazzo Pitti, n. 22, pp. 152-153, lám. p. 40

1985

Moderne Malerei aus der Sammlung Thyssen-Bornemisza, Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum; Düsseldorf, Städtische Kunsthalle, n. 22, pp. 153-154, lám. p. 40

1985 - 1986

Maîtres Modernes de la Collection Thyssen-Bornemisza, París, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, n. 22, pp. 160-161, lám. p. 48

1986

Maestros modernos de la Colección Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Salas Pablo Ruiz Picasso, Biblioteca Nacional, Ministerio de Cultura; Barcelona, Palau de la Virreina, n. 22, p. 163, lám. p. 44

1989

Espressionismo. Capolavori della collezione Thyssen-Bornemisza, Lugano, Villa Favorita, n. 14, p. 46, lám. p. 47

1989 - 1990

Expressionism and Modern German Painting from the Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Washington (DC), National Gallery of Art; Fort Worth (TX), Kimbell Art Museum; San Francisco (CA), San Francisco Museum of Art, n. 8, p. 38, lám. p. 39

1990

Vincent van Gogh und die Moderne 1890 - 1914, Essen, Museum Folkwang, n. 147

1990 - 1991

Painters of Venice, Ámsterdam, Rijksmuseum, n. 115

1996 - 1997

From Zurbaran to Picasso. Masterpieces from the Collection of Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Shanghai, Shanghai Museum; Pekín, China National Art Gallery, p. 142, lám. p. 143

1997

Del vedutismo a las primeras vanguardias. Obras maestras de la Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Bilbao, Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao, n. 62, p. 196, lám. p. 197

1998 - 1999

Masterworks from the Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Tokio, Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum; Takaoka, Takaoka Art Museum; Nagoya, Matsuzaka Art Museum; Sendai, Miyagi Museum of Art, n. 90, p. 202, lám. p. 203

1999 - 2000

Del impresionismo a la vanguardia en la Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Barcelona, Centre Cultural Caixa Catalunya, pp. 146, 148, lám. p. 147, det. p. 149

2000

Del post-impresionismo a las vanguardias. Pintura de comienzos del siglo XX en la Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Valencia, IVAM Centre Julio González, n. 23, p. 82, lám. 83

2000 - 2001

La Révolte de la couleur. De l'impressionnisme aux Avant-gardes. Chefs-d'oeuvre de la Collection Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Bruselas, Musée d'Ixelles, n. 32, pp. 98, 100, lám. p. 99, det. p. 101

2001

Landschaften von Brueghel bis Kandinsky. Die Ausstellung zu Ehren des Sammlers Hans Heinrich Baron Thyssen-Bornemisza, Bonn, Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, n. 75, p. 190, lám. p. 191

2005

Brücke. El nacimiento del expresionismo alemán, Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza - Fundación Caja Madrid, n. 103, lám. p. 187

2005

El naixement de l'expressionisme alemany. Brücke, Barcelona, Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, n. 74, lám. p. 148

2005 - 2006

Brücke. Die Geburt des deutschen Expressionismus, Berlín, Brücke-Museum, n. 105, lám. p. 220

2006 - 2007

Deutsche Expressionisten: mit Meisterwerken aus der Sammlung Thyssen-Bornemisza, Viena, Leopold Museum, p. 132, lám. p. 133

2010 - 2011

Erich Heckel. Aufbruch und Tradition. Eine Retrospektive, Schleswig, Stiftung Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesmuseen, Schloss Gottorf, 15, pp. 185 (lám.), 322

2018

Allées et venues. Gauguin y cuatro siglos de caminos en el arte. Museu Carmen Thyssen Andorra, p. 54-55 y 98.

  • -Wietek, Gerhard: Maler der ”Brücke” in Dangast von 1907 bis 1912: Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Erich Heckel, Max Pechstein, Emma Ritter. [Exhib. Cat. Oldenburg, Oldenburger Schloss]. Oldenburg, Oldenburger Kunstverein, 1957, p. 88.

  • -Vogt, Paul: Erich Heckel. Recklinghausen, Aurel Bogers, 1965, n. 1908/8.

  • -Kiel, Hanna: The Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection of Modern Paintings. Castagnola, Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, 1974, p. 48, lám. p. 47.

  • -Lieberman, W. S.: 20th-Century Masters. The Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection. [Exhib. Cat. Washington (DC), National Gallery of Art – New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982-1983]. Washington, International Exhibitions Foundations, 1982 , n. 6, p. 15, lám. [ Sheet by Liebermann]

  • -Vergo, Peter: Expressionism. Masterpieces from the Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection. [Exhib. Cat.]. Lugano, Fondazione Thyssen-Bornemisza – Milan, Electa, 1989, n. 14, p. 46, lám. p. 47.

  • -Vergo, Peter: Twentieth-century German Painting: the Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection. London Sotheby’s Publications, 1992, n. 23, pp. 112-115, lám. p. 113.

  • -Crepaldi, Gabriele: Expresionistas. Los protagonistas, los grupos, las grandes obras. Milan, 2002, p. 43, lám.

  • -Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza. Arnaldo, Javier (ed.). 2 vols. Madrid, Fundación Colección Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2004, vol. 2, p. 358, lám. p. 359 [Sheet by Peter Vergo]

  • -Brücke. El nacimiento del expresionismo alemán. Arnaldo, Javier y Moeller, Magdalena M. (eds.). [Exhib. Cat. ]. Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2005.

  • -Remm, Christiane: “Exteriores rurales”. Madrid 2005, pp. 173-175, cit. p. 174.

  • -Deutsche Expressionisten: mit Meisterwerken aus der Sammlung Thyssen-Bornemisza. Fuhr, Michael. [et. al.]. [Exhib. Cat.] Vienna, Leopold Museum, 2006, p. 132, lám. p. 133 [Sheet by Dietrun Otten]

  • -Borobia, Mar y Alarcó, Paloma (eds.): Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. Obras escogidas. Madrid, Fundación Colección Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2011, p. 216, lám. p. 217.

  • -Alarcó, P. y Borobia, M. (eds.): Guía de la colección. Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2012, p. 298, lám. p. 299.

  • -Allées et venues. Gauguin y cuatro siglos de caminos en el arte. Museu Carmen Thyssen Andorra, 2018. p. 54-55 y 98 [Exhib. Cat.] [Sheet by Peter Vergo]

Expert report

The Old Post House in Dangast-the “White House” shown in Heckel’s painting-still stands, not far from the shore line and mud flats of the so-called Wattenmeer, the curving bay which describes a semi-circle between the town of Varel and the port of Wilhelmshaven. The immediate surroundings, however, are now so changed that it is difficult to visualise the locality as it must have appeared in the early years of this century. In particular, the main asphalt road now runs not alongside the building, but past the further gable end of the house. The house itself is also overshadowed by trees to such extent that one can scarcely imagine it in the dazzling sunlit colours of Heckel’s painting. Schmidt-Rottluff and, in later years, Franz Radziwill also depicted the same building on several occasions.

The picture dates from Heckel’s second visit to Dangast in summer 1908. It signals a dramatic move away from the heavy impasto characteristic of his works done the preceding year towards a flatter, clearer manner of painting. The pigment is now sparingly applied, the composition dominated by flat, luminous planes of colour. Heckel at this time started diluting his paints with varnish or even paraffin, experimenting with ground pigments and attempting to devise a kind of thin distemper that might suit his increasingly rapid and impulsive brushwork.

House in Dangast marks perhaps the closest point of contact between any of theBrücke artists and the Fauves. One could easily convince oneself that, instead of the cold sunlight of Germany’s North Sea coast, these were the brilliant colours of the Mediterranean captured by a painter like Vlaminck or Derain. Whether Heckel was aware of their work at so early a date remains open to question. Such influences could have been mediated through the example of Pechstein, who had discovered the art of the Fauves at first hand in Paris during the winter of 1907-1908. Paintings by fauvist artists including Derain, Van Dongen, Friesz, Marquet and Vlaminck were also exhibited in Dresden at the Kunstsalon Richter in September 1908 at the same time as a showing of the Brücke members’ own work. Matisse, too, was known in Germany by 1909 at the latest, in part through his exhibition at Cassirer’s in Berlin in January of that year. House in Dangast had, on the other hand, been painted as early as the preceding summer, and it is possible that Heckel had arrived independently at similar conclusions, and that his later statement that he was unaware of contemporary French art should be taken quite literally.

Dangast was one of several remote destinations favoured by the Brücke artists for their summer painting expeditions, when they would escape the stuffy confines of the city and immerse themselves in what they saw as a more “primitive” way of life.

Peter Vergo