Christ and Magdalen

Auguste Rodin

Cristo y la Magdalena

Rodin, Auguste

París, 1840 - Meudon, 1917

Christ and Magdalen, 1905-1908

© Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza

Signed on stone, right: ''A. Rodin''.
Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection on loan to the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid.

Marble

102 x 77 x 70 cm

K 56C.2 (CTB.DEC1639)

Artwork history

  • August Thyssen, Landsberg Castle, April 6, 1908. (order by August Thyssen before December 15, 1905, 20.000 francs sent to Rodin.  August Thyssen appointed “Christ & Virgin” for the marble.  April 6, 1908 marble has been finished. May 13, marble arrived to Landsberg Castle. Paid May 15, 1908, Deutsche Bank- bank check).

  • Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Lugano

  • Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection

1996

De Canaletto a Kandinsky. Obras maestras de la Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, n. 94, pp. 238-239

1996 - 1997

Rodin. Les marbres de la Collection Thyssen, París, Musée Rodin, n. 3, pp. 78-95

1997

Del vedutismo a las primeras vanguardias. Obras maestras de la Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Bilbao, Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao, n. 56, pp. 180-181

1997 - 1998

The Spirit of the Place. Masterworks from the Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Nueva York, The Frick Collection; Hartford (CT), Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, n. 23, pp. 70-73

2009 - 2010

Lágrimas de Eros, Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza - Fundación Caja Madrid, p. 171, lám. p. 170

2017

Rodin. L'exposition du centenaire. Musée Rodin et Musées Nationaux, Grand Palais, Paris. 22 March -31 July, 2017. Cat. 155. pp. 180.

  • -Maillard, L.: Auguste Rodin statuaire. París, 1898, p. 156.

  • -Fitz-Gerald, W. G.: ”A Personal Study of Rodin”.  World’s Work. Noviembre 1905 , p. 6826, lám.

  • -Saint-Point, V. de: ”La double personnalité d’Auguste Rodin”.  La Nouvelle Revue. November, 1906, n. 15 , p. 200.

  • -Gsell, P.: ”Chez Rodin”. L’Art et les artistes. París, February, 1907 , p. 404.

  • -Morgan, J.: ”Causeries chez quelques maîtres. M. Auguste Rodin”.  Le Gaulois. 21 enero 1909.

  • -Rodin, A.: L’Art. Entretiens réunis par Paul Gsell. París, 1911.

  • -Coquiot, Gustave: Rodin. París, 1915, p. 36, lám. 7.

  • -Mauclair, C.: Auguste Rodin. La vie, les oeuvres, l’esthétique, l’influence sur notre temps. París, 1918, pp. 30, 80.

  • -Grappe, G.: Catalogue du Musée Rodin. I. Hôtel Biron: essai de classement chronologique des oeuvres d’Auguste Rodin . 1a ed. París, Musée Rodin, 1927, n. 185.

  • -Grappe, G.: Catalogue du Musée Rodin. 1, Hôtel Biron: essai de classement chronologique des oeuvres d’Auguste Rodin. 2a ed. París, Musée Rodin, 1929, n. 215.

  • -Grappe, G.: Catalogue du Musée Rodin. 1, Hôtel Biron: essai de classement chronologique des oeuvres d’Auguste Rodin. 3a ed. París, Musée Rodin, 1931, n. 300.

  • -Cladel, J.: Rodin, sa vie glorieuse, sa vie inconnue. París, 1936, pp. 145-146.

  • -Geyraud, P.: ”Rodin devant la douleur et l’amour”.  Revue moderne des arts et de la vie. París, 1937, pp. 22-23.

  • -Grappe, G.: Catalogue du Musée Rodin. I, Hotel Biron: essai de classement chronologique des oeuvres d’Auguste Rodin. 4a ed. París, Musée Rodin,1938, n. 238.

  • -Grappe, G.: Catalogue du Musée Rodin. I, Hotel Biron: essai de classement chronologique des oeuvres d’Auguste Rodin. 5a ed. París, Musée Rodin, 1944, n. 273.

  • -Jourdain, F.: Rodin. Lausana, 1949, fig. 34.

  • -Tacha, A. C.: ”The Prodigal Son: some new aspects of Rodin sculpture”.  Allen Memorial Art Museum Bulletin. 1964, vol. 22, pp. 30-33.

  • -Descharnes, R. y Chabrun, F.: Auguste Rodin. Lausana – París, 1967, p. 142.

  • -Spear, A. T.: ”A Note on Rodin’s Prodigal Son and the relationship of Rodin’s marbles and bronzes”.  Allen Memorial Art Museum Bulletin. 1969, n. 1, pp. 27,29, figs. 5-6.

  • -Steinberg, L.: Other Criteria. Confrontations with twentieth-century art. London – Oxford – New York, 1972, p. 375.

  • -Caso, J. de, y Sanders, P. B.: Rodin’s Sculpture. A Critical Study of the Spreckels Collection. California Palace of the Legion de Honor. San Francisco (CA), The San Francisco Museum of Fine Art, 1977, n. 11.

  • -Elsen, A. E.: Dans l’atelier de Rodin. New York, 1980, pp. 180-181, fig. 103.

  • -Frankel Jamison, R.: ”Rodin’s humanization of the Muse”. Rodin rediscovered. [Exhib. Cat.]. Elsen, Albert E. (ed.). Washington, National Gallery of Art, 1981, p. 109.

  • -Rodin. Sculptures and drawings. [Exhib. Cat.]. London, Hayward Gallery, 1986-87, p. 177. [Sheet byLampert]

  • -Guillot, J.: ”Victor Peter sculpteur (1840-1918)”. [Doctoral Thesis]. Sorbona, París, 1988, pp. 41, 164-168, 197-198, 221, 238.

  • -Laurent, M.: Rodin. París, 1988, p. 151.

  • -Crone, R. y Moos, D.: ”Trauma des Göttlichen. Eine Kritik der Konvention. Über der Fragment in der Welt von Auguste Rodin und Friedrich Nietzsche”.  Genius Rodin. Eros und Kreativität. Bremen-Düsseldorf, 1991-92, pp. 9-37.

  • -Rodin, A.: Correspondance de Rodin. París, 1992, vol. 4, n. 128.

  • -Jarrassé, D.: Rodin. La passion du mouvement. París, 1993, p. 185.

  • De Canaletto a Kandinsky. Obras maestras de la colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza. Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. [Exhib. Cat. Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza]. Llorens Serra, Tomàs (ed.). Madrid, Fundación Colección Thyssen-Bornemisza, 1996 , n. 94, pp. 238-239. [Sheet by Antoinette le Normand-Romain]

  • Rodin. Les marbres de la collection Thyssen: 8 octobre 1996-5 janvier 1997. [Exhib. Cat. 1996-1997]. Le Normand-Romain, Antoinette. París, Musée Rodin, 1996, pp. 78-95, lám. [Sheet by Le Normand-Romain]

  • Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza. Arnaldo, Javier (ed.). 2 vols. Madrid, Fundación Colección Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2004, vol. 2, p. 194, lám. p. 195 [ Sheet by Antoinette le Normand-Romain]

  • -Solana, Guillermo: ”Lágrimas de Eros”.  Madrid 2009-2010, pp. 15-74, cit. p. 48.

  • -Solana, Guillermo: Lágrimas de Eros. [Exhib. Cat. 2009-2010]. Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza – Fundación Caja Madrid, 2009.

  • -Borobia, Mar y Alarcó, Paloma (eds.): Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. Obras escogidas. Madrid, Fundación Colección Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2011, p. 202, lám. p. 203.

  • -Alarcó, P. y Borobia, M. (eds.): Guía de la colección. Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2012, p. 266, lám.

  • -Edvard Munch. Arquetipos. Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, 2015. Fig. 36, p. 43 (photo) [Exhib. Cat.].

  • -Rodin. L’exposition du centenaire. Musée Rodin et Musées Nationaux, Grand Palais, Paris, 2017. Cat. 155. pp. 180. [Exhib. Cat.].

Expert report

Although the inventories that Rodin left behind refer to about a dozen Christs-including the large Italian Christ that hung in his room in Meudon-and although we know that he particularly admired the ascetic Christ in Perpignan cathedral and the Santísimo in Burgos, Christ and the Magdalen is the only surviving testimony of a work of religious inspiration. According to Judith Cladel it was not the first Christ that Rodin executed, but it is the only one to survive today.

The execution of this marble was undoubtedly started before August Thyssen commissioned it. In his work on Rodin published in 1898, Maillard dates the plaster to 1894 and it is even possible that it dates from the mid-1890s. This is confirmed for example, in a letter from a female admirer dating from these years which refers to the statue Balzac (commissioned in 1891, exhibited at the 1898 Salon): “Is Balzac advancing well?” Berthe Dumon asked Rodin. “Did you make the Christ on the column and have you transmitted all that you wanted to through it?” With regard to the marble, the first documented record of the work is the publication in 1905 of a photograph of the group in the Thyssen Collection, which was by then in an advanced stage of completion.

In Christ and the Magdalen, Rodin appears as the successor to the artists of the Romantic generation. “I had confessed, ” Berthe Dumon wrote, “a sympathy (to the group) equal to that which I feel for La Destinée, the eloquent story of a brilliant man who is ridiculed more as his ideas become truer and more just; today’s pillory will become tomorrow’s triumphant altar, even if during his lifetime he will often only be understood by a compassionate woman.” This parallel between Christ and the genius misunderstood by his contemporaries -one of the Romantics’ preferred themes-is confirmed by titles like The Genius and Compassion or Prometheus and a Sea Nymph that were sometimes given to the work according to Grappe. Rodin seems to have been fascinated by the myth of Prometheus with which artists in the 19th century often identified (in a similar way to Christ in the Symbolist period).

In fact, at the beginning of the 1890s Rodin experienced several professional and personal difficulties: while he started his liaison with Camille Claudel, The Bourgeois of Calais was still on the point of being installed, and the Monument to Victor Hugo and Claude Lorrain were severely criticised and had to be changed. The harshest blow, however, came after the scandal caused by the presentation of Balzac at the 1898 Salon, when the Society of Men of Letters rejected the sculpture it had commissioned. In order to help him overcome this ordeal, Rodin’s friends encouraged him to go back to previous works, including the Gates of Hell. It is more than likely that was at this moment that he decided to have Christ and the Magdalen, a work with a mould that was a few years old, translated into marble? “The artist, ” he confided to Gsell, “sometimes has a tortured heart. In everything he sees he clearly captures the intentions of destiny. He enthusiastically fixes his vision on his own anxiety and his most severe wounds like a man who has foretold the dictates of fortune.”

It is perhaps this special link with its creator which explains why Christ and the Magdalen was never exhibited during the artist’s life, while the numerous photographs that exist of it (by Druet, Bulloz, Vizzavona, Choumoff) and the admiring comments it provoked from those who saw it, are an indication of the reception it might have had at the end of the century, a period favourable to Symbolism. The plaster mould was not presented at the 1900 exhibition; the two marbles quickly entered private collections from which they did not emerge again. Whether unintentionally or deliberately on Rodin’s part, few works of this importance remained in such obscurity. In the meantime, the moulds for the marble of the Thyssen Collection were made and it is through these that the group became famous after Rodin’s death.

Antoinette le Normand-Romain