Post, Frans Janszoon
Haarlem, c. 1612 - 1680
The Church of St. Cosmas and St. Damian and The Franciscan Monastery at Igaraçu, Brazil, c. 1660-1680
Signed and dated lower right: ''F. POST 1656''
Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection on deposit at the Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza
Oil on panel
42,8 x 58,8 cm
Adolphe Stein, Paris, 1962.
Adolphe Stein, Crans-sur-Sierre, 1973.
British Rail Pension Fund, London, 1974.
Doncaster Museum and Art Gallery, Doncaster, 1977-90. (on loan).
Sotheby’s, London, December 7th, 1994. lot 24.
Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection on deposit at the Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza,
1982 - 1983
Dutch 17th Century Paintings from Yorkshire Public Collections, Leeds, Leeds City Art Gallery, nº 34, illus. p. 70.
Dutch Landscape Painting, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Laing Art Gallery, nº 28, illus. p. 48.
Thirty-five Paintings from the Collection of the British Rail Pension Fund, London, Agnew's, nº 23.
1989 - 1990
Dutch Paintings, Birmingham, City Museum & Art Gallery, nº 69, p. 232, illus. p. 95.
Frans Post, Basle, Kunsthalle Basel; Tubinga, Kunsthalle Tübingen, illus. p. 58.
El final de la Guerra de Flandes (1621-1648), Madrid, Fundación Carlos de Antwerp, nº 99, p. 153, illus. p. 31.
Aspectos de la tradición paisajística en la Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Málaga, Salas de Exposiciones del Palacio Episcopal, nº 5, pp. 38-40.
De Van Goyen a Constable. Aspectos da tradición do pintoresco na Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Corunna, Museo de Belas Artes da Coruña, nº 5, p. 44.
O olhar distante, Fundação Bienal, 500 anos, São Paulo, Pavilhão Cirillo Matarazzo, illus. p. 100.
De Van Dyck a Goya. Maestros Antiguos de la Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Castellón, Museo de Bellas Artes, nº 32, p. 116.
Frans Post (1612-1680). Maler des Verlorenen Paradieses, Munich, Haus der Kunst, nº 22, p. 108, illus. p. 109.
Tarsila do Amaral, Madrid, Fundación Juan March, nº 148, p. 283, fig. p. 181.
Paraísos y paisajes en la Colección Carmen Thyssen. De Brueghel a Gauguin, Málaga, Museo Carmen Thyssen Málaga, nº 4, pp. 72-73, illus. p. 73.
Rembrant and the Ducht Golden Age. Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts. n. 17, pp. 176-177.
Allées et venues. Gauguin y cuatro siglos de caminos en el arte. Museu Carmen Thyssen Andorra, p. 22-23 y 96.
-Larsen, Erik: Frans Post. Interprète de Brésil. Amsterdam – Río de Janeiro, Colibris Editora, 1962, nº 133, p. 30, illus.
-Sousa-Leão, J. de: Frans Post 1612-1680. Amsterdam, 1973, nº 85, pp. 26 and 114 ff., fig. p. 17.
-Sotheby’s (aut. corp.): Old master paintings. [Auction cat.]. London, December 7th, 1994, p. 29, illus.
-Aspectos de la Tradición Paisajística en la Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza. Llorens Serra, Tomàs (ed.). [Exhib. cat. Málaga, Salas de Exposiciones del Palacio Episcopal]. Málaga, Fundación Unicaja, 1999, nº 5, pp. 38-40. [Sheet by Peter C. Sutton].
-De Van Goyen a Constable. Aspectos da tradición do pintoresco na Colección Carmen Thyssen- Bornemisza, La Coruña, Museo de Belas Artes da Coruña [Exhib. Cat. Museo de Belas Artes da Coruña], 2000, n. 5, p. 44.
-De Van Dyck a Goya. Maestros Antiguos de la Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Castellón, Museo de Bellas Artes [ Exhib. Cat. Museo de Bellas Artes, Castellón], 2001, n. 32, p. 116.
-Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza. Arnaldo, Javier (ed.). 2 vols. Madrid, Fundación Colección Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2004, vol. 1, p. 106, illus. p. 107 [Sheet by Peter C. Sutton].
-Frans Post (1612-1680). Maler des Verlorenen Paradieses. Krempel, León (ed.). [Exhib. cat.]. Munich, Haus der Kunst, 2006, p. 108, illus. p. 109 [Sheet by León Krempel].
-Corrêa do Lago, Pedro and Corrêa do Lago, Bia: Frans Post (1612 – 1680). Catalogue raisonné. Río de Janeiro, Capivara – Milan, 5 Continents, 2007 [Original ed. in Portuguese: Frans Post (1612-1680): Río de Janeiro, Capivara, 2006], illus. p. 228, detail p. 229.
-Paraísos y paisajes en la Colección Carmen Thyssen. De Brueghel a Gauguin, Málaga, Museo Carmen Thyssen Málaga [Exhib. Cat. Museo Carmen Thyssen Málaga], 2012, n. 4, pp. 72-73, lám. p. 73.
-Rembrandt and the Ducht Golden Age. Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts, 2014. nº17, P. 176-177.
-Allées et venues. Gauguin y cuatro siglos de caminos en el arte. Museu Carmen Thyssen Andorra, 2018. p. 22-23 y 96. [Exhib. Cat. Museu Carmen Thyssen Andorra] [Sheet by Peter C. Sutton]
Frans Post made a lifelong career of painting freely recollected, nostalgic images of Brazil based on his seven-year-stay (1637-1644) in South-America. The chronicler of artists’ lives, Arnold Houbraken, reports that Frans was recommended by his brother, Pieter Post, to accompany Johann Maurits van Nassau-Siegen on his expedition to Brazil, where the latter had been appointed Governor General. While the painter Albert Eckhout recorded the native people, flora and fauna of the region, Post concentrated on the landscape, terrain, plantations and settlements. He executed sketches on the spot as well as paintings, one half dozen of which have survived. However most of Post’s known oeuvre post-dates his return to his native Holland. While ironically the paintings from his brazilian period employ the muted palette and atmospheric effects of the Dutch “tonalist” manner in which Post was trained in Holland, his later works exhibit sharper, bolder contrasts, detailed colour, and a tripartite division of the landscape that recalls 16th century conventions. Post often separates his scenes into striated zones corresponding to fore-, middle-, and background, which are dominated respectively by a lush jungle green, brown and beige hues, and, toward the distant horizon, hazy blues.
The present painting is typical of the carefully ordered panoramic views with bracketing coulisses (the tall trees and “wings” of dark foliage to either side) that Post perfected in his maturity. The buildings in the middle distance are the crumbling Church of St. Cosmas and St. Damian on the left, and on the right, the Franciscan Monastery at Igaraçu. Post undoubtedly recorded Igaraçu in first hand sketches (now lost), which he then developed into finished drawings the year after his return to the Netherlands; see the series of 32 sheets, several of which are signed and dated 1645, now preserved in the British Museum, London. In turn the finished drawings served as models for the etched illustrations in Barlaeus’ Historia de rerum per octennium in Brasilia (1647).
However, just as Dutch land -and cityscapists like Jacob van Ruisdael and Jan van der Heyden took liberties with actual topography and buildings, so too Frans Post undoubtedly altered and rearranged the architecture and setting of Igaraçu. For example, his four other images of the Church, all depict the structure without the Monastery and with different buildings surrounding it. Furthermore, Post’s two other paintings of the Monastery freely shuffle and rearrange its architecture. Especially after so many years, Post may have felt that topographic accuracy was less important to his viewers than the evocation of a sense of place, namely a far-off land of exotic plants and animals, picturesque ruins and architectural amalgams of European traditions and local building styles, and vast stretches of fertile countryside. By inventorying the native creatures (note the armadillo and giant toad in the right foreground), vegetation, fruit and flowering plants, as well as the local peoples (representatives of all three races who inhabited Brazil at this time appear in the centre: black Africans, native Indians, and a European), Post offered a fictive but encyclopedic account of one corner of the New World, thereby fulfilling his patrons’ expectations.
De Sousa-Leão rightly complimented the present work as “One of Post’s most attractive paintings.” Its bright crisp style and fully assured technique are most characteristic of the artist’s later style from 1660 or thereafter. Ironically, the Netherlands had relinquished control of Brazil back to the Portuguese in 1654. Thus Post’s late paintings can be seen in one sense as compensation for loss and a reassertion of the global reach of the Dutch trading empire.
Peter C. Sutton