Beach, Evening Effect

Henri-Edmond Cross

Playa, efecto de tarde

Cross, Henri-Edmond

Douai, 1856 - Saint-Clair, 1910

Beach, Evening Effect, 1902

© Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza

Signed lower right: ''Henri Edmond Cross''.
Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection on loan to the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid.

Oil on canvas

54 x 65 cm

CTB.1998.73

Artwork history

  • Mrs. Henri-Edmond Cross, París

  • Bernheim- Jeune Gallery, París, 1912

  • Sotheby’s Auctions, London,  lot 14, April 12, 1984

  • Sotheby’s Auctions, London,  lot 127,  December 8, 1998

  • Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection

1903

Neo-Impressionisten, Hamburgo, Galerie Paul Cassirer; Berlín, Galerie Paul Cassirer, n. 26

1905

H. E. Cross, París, Galerie Druet, n. 14

1910

H. E. Cross, París, Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, n. 7

1913

H. .E. Cross, París, Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, n. 6

1999

Do impresionismo ó fauvismo: A pintura do cambio de século en París. Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Santiago de Compostela, Centro Galego de Arte Contemporánea, n. 32, p. 98

1999 - 2000

Del impresionismo a la vanguardia en la Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Barcelona, Centre Cultural Caixa Catalunya, p. 100

2000

Del impresionismo a la vanguardia en la Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, México, DF, Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes, p. 100

2000

Del post-impresionismo a las vanguardias. Pintura de comienzos del siglo XX en la Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Valencia, IVAM Centre Julio González, n. 13, p. 54.

2000 - 2001

La Révolte de la couleur. De l'impressionnisme aux Avant-gardes. Chefs-d'oeuvre de la Collection Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Bruselas, Musée d'Ixelles, n. 2, p. 26

2002

Il trionfo del colore. Collezione Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza. Monet, Van Gogh, Gauguin, Toulouse-Lautrec, Matisse, Kandinsky, Roma, Palazzo Ruspoli, p. 108

2011

Louis Valtat à l'aube du fauvisme, Lodève, Musée de Lodève, n. 94, p. 160

2011 - 2012

Henri-Edmond Cross et le néo-impressionisme. De Seurat à Matisse, París, Musée Marmottan Monet; Le Cateau-Cambrésis, Musée départemental Matisse, n. 44, p.77.

2012

Paraísos y paisajes en la Colección Carmen Thyssen. De Brueghel a Gauguin, Málaga, Museo Carmen Thyssen Málaga, n. 38, p. 146, lám. p. 147

2014

L'ideal en el paisatge. De Meifrèn a Matisse i Gontxarova. Col·lecció Carmen Thyssen, Sant Feliu de Guíxols, fundació Privada Centre d'Art Col·lecció Catalana de Sant Feliu de Guíxols, p. 92, lám. p. 93

2018 - 2019

Color and Light: The Neo-Impressionist Henri-Edmond Cross. Musée des impressionnismes Giverny & Museum Barberini, Potsdam. Cat. 39, p. 131.

  • -Guilbeaux, H.: ”La vie et les arts. Exposition H.-E. Cross”.  Les Hommes du Jour. October 29,  1910.

  • -Compin, I.: Henri-Edmond Cross. París, 1964, p. 196, n. 100, p. 196.

  • -Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza. Arnaldo, Javier (ed.). 2 vols. Madrid, Fundación Colección Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2004, vol. 2, p. 138, lám. p. 139 [Sheet by Guillermo Solana]

  • -Alarcó, P. y Borobia, M. (eds.): Guía de la colección. Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2012, p. 278, lám.

  • -Paraísos y paisajes en la Colección Carmen Thyssen. De Brueghel a Gauguin, Málaga, Museo Carmen Thyssen Málaga, 2012, n. 38, p. 146, lám. p. 147. (Exhib. Cat.)

  • -L’ideal en el paisatge. De Meifrèn a Matisse i Gontxarova. Col·lecció Carmen Thyssen, Sant Feliu de Guíxols, fundació Privada Centre d’Art Col·lecció Catalana de Sant Feliu de Guíxols, 2014,  p. 92, lám. p. 93 (Exhib. Cat.).

  • -Mediterráneo. Una Arcadia reinventada. De Signac a Picasso. Museo Carmen Thyssen Málaga, [Exhib. Cat.], 2018. Fig. 8, P. 29.

  • -Color and Light: The Neo-Impressionist Henri-Edmond Cross. Musée des impressionnismes Giverny & Museum Barberini, Potsdam. [Exhib. Cat. Giverny- Potsdam], 2018,  Ed. Prestel, Cat. 39, P. 131.

Expert report

In the autumn of 1891, Cross moved to Saint-Clair on the French Mediterranean coast, where he was to produce a large part of his oeuvre. That same year he became a convert to neo-Impressionism, which he had absorbed from his friends Seurat and Signac. In his Pointillist-type paintings he used tones that were pure but soft, mixed with white, as a means of expressing the discoloration that occurs under the harsh light of the Midi. Gradually, he began to develop his own personal style within the shared approach of Divisionism.

According to Signac, Cross was tormented by the conflict arising between the problems of naturalism and the freedom of the imagination: “Cross’s struggle with nature was terrible: at each brushstroke, fighting with all his will against his early training, he gave out a cry of pain, as if he were carrying a heavy load. Often he was defeated in this struggle; and yet when he was alone in front of his easel, in full creative fervour, he would triumph, as can be seen from his late works, the freedom and splendour of which have never been bettered.”

Indeed, from 1903 onwards Cross’s landscapes of the coast of Provence use less realistic colouring and are inhabited by mythological creatures such as nymphs and fauns. The painting shown here (Beach, Evening Effect), painted in the summer of 1902 close to Saint-Clair, is still in an intermediate stage between his loyalty to nature and his ultimate decorative fantasy. The figures-the nudes that so often occur in Cross’s paintings-here appear frankly diminished by the presence of a large tree that dominates the composition. Pines against the landscape are common motifs in Cross’s work, although by no means exclusive to his work: Cézanne used a solitary pine as a key element in at least two paintings, and Signac used this motif repeatedly, albeit with the pines of the bay of Saint-Tropez. Pines appear again in Matisse, in his preliminary studies for Luxe, calme et volupté, for example, those painted on the Saint-Tropez coast in the summer of 1904 in the company of Signac and Cross, and indeed under their direct influence.

Guillermo Solana